Chapters include: 1. Introduction: Subversions, Ethnic Dynamics, and Racism. 2. Elite Strategies, Local Networks. Part I. Ethnicity and Commodity Chains in Nineteenth-Century Virginia. 3. George Washington’s Great Emporium. 4. The Testimony of Merchants. 5. Ethnic Networks and a Cultural Landscape in the Backcountry. 6. Local Archaeology and Trans-Atlantic Competitions. 7. Concluding Observations: Ethnic Networks in a Mid-Atlantic Periphery. Part II. Racism, Land, and Freedom in Nineteenth-Century Illinois. 8. Overcoming Enslavement with Toil, Gunpowder, and Land. 9. Racism’s Waste and Resilient Entrepreneurs. 10. Surmounting Adversities in the Land of Lincoln. 11. Concluding Observations: Understanding Histories with Concepts of Race and Ethnicity.